Essence Cane Corso

Subtitle

Rate Your Dog Food

UNDERSTANDING PET FOOD LABELS

Standards set by AAFCO, shows there are problems with the pet food industry's labeling practices. The labels follow a secret code, and consumers do not have the key to decipher it. In fact, most consumers do not even realize that there is a hidden meaning in the label's wording.

The "Flavor" Rule states that a food may be labeled as "Beef Flavored Dog Food" even if it does not contain any beef, as long as the flavor is "sufficiently detectable." This is achieved by using meals, by-products, or various parts from the animal listed on the label.

When a label reads "With Real Turkey," a consumer may assume that he is purchasing quality turkey dog food for his pet. However, according to AAFCO's "Nutrient Profiles," a label may use "with
" if it contains 3% of the meat, excluding water.

The 25% or "Dinner" Rule states that any label that has a qualifier such as "dinner," "entrée," or "nuggets" must contain at least 25% of that meat. If two ingredients are listed, such as "Chicken and Liver Dinner," then the total product weight must equal 25%. The first ingredient listed must contain more than the second, and the second ingredient must comprise at least 3% of the total product weight excluding water for processing.

Very few all-meat commercial foods are available, because they do not provide a balanced diet. Some companies offer canned meats with 95% and 100% of one ingredient as a supplement. To qualify for using "all" or "100%" on a label, a food must contain 95% of that ingredient or 70% of the total weight excluding water for processing. If the label reads "Beef and Liver for Dogs

The pet food industry only uses ingredients that are unfit for human consumption. They make a profit from waste that would otherwise be worthless to them.

Check out where your dog food rates....some results are posted below.


 

Score your dog food


 


Start with a grade of 100 points

1) For every listing of "by-product" , subtract 10 points
2) For every non-specific animal source ("meat" or "poultry", meat, meal or fat) reference, subtract 10 points
3) If the food contains BHA, BHT, or ethoxyquin, subtract 10 points
4) For every grain "mill run" or non-specific grain source subtract 5 points
5) If the same grain ingredient is used 2 or more times in the first five ingredients (i.e. "ground brown rice", "brewer's rice", "rice flour" are all the same grain), subtract 5 points
6) If the protein sources are not meat meal and there are less than 2 meats
in the top 3 ingredients, subtract 3 points
7) If it contains any artificial colorants, subtract 3 points
8 ) If it contains ground corn or whole grain corn, subtract 3 points
9) If corn is listed in the top 5 ingredients, subtract 2 more points
10) If the food contains any animal fat other than fish oil, subtract 2 points
11) If lamb is the only animal protein source (unless your dog is allergic to other protein sources), subtract 2 points
12) If it contains soy or soybeans, subtract 2 points
13) If it contains wheat (unless you know that your dog isn't allergic to wheat), subtract 2 points
14) If it contains beef (unless you know that your dog isn't allergic to beef), subtract 1 point
15) If it contains salt, subtract 1 point


 

Extra Credit:


1) If any of the meat sources are organic, add 5 points
2) If the food is endorsed by any major breed group or nutritionist, add 5 points
3) If the food is baked not extruded, add 5 points
4) If the food contains probiotics, add 3 points
5) If the food contains fruit, add 3 points
6) If the food contains vegetables (NOT corn or other grains), add 3 points
7) If the animal sources are hormone-free and antibiotic-free, add 2 points
8) If the food contains barley, add 2 points
9) If the food contains flax seed oil (not just the seeds), add 2 points
10) If the food contains oats or oatmeal, add 1 point
11) If the food contains sunflower oil, add 1 point
12) For every different specific animal protein source (other than the first one; count "chicken" and "chicken meal" as only one protein source, but "chicken" and "fish" as 2 different sources), add 1 point
13) If it contains glucosamine and chondroitin, add 1 point
14) If the vegetables have been tested for pesticides and are pesticide-free, add 1 point


 


94-100+ = A
86-93 = B
78-85 = C
70-77 = D
69 = F


 


Following are some foods that have already been scored (alphabetical order then by score):

ALPHABETICAL ORDER:
Authority Harvest Baked / Score 116 A+
Bil-Jac Select / Score 68 F
Canidae / Score 112 A+
Chicken Soup Senior / Score 115 A+
Diamond Maintenance / Score 64 F
Diamond Lamb Meal & Rice / Score 92 B
Diamond Large Breed 60+ Formula / Score 99 A
Dick Van Patten's Natural Balance Ultra Premium / Score 122 A+
Dick Van Patten's Duck and Potato / Score 106 A+
Eagle Pack Holistic Select / Score 119 A+
Eagle Pack Holistic Select Chicken / Score 114 A+
Eagle Pack Large and Giant Breed Puppy / Score 94 A
Eagle Pack Natural / Score 94 A
Eukanuba Large Breed Adult / Score 83 C
Eukanuba Natural Lamb and Rice / Score 87 B
Flint River Ranch / Score 92 B (non-specific fat source)
Foundations / Score 106 A+
Hund-n-Flocken Adult Dog (lamb) by Solid Gold / Score 93 A
Iams Lamb Meal & Rice Formula Premium / Score 73 D
Iams Large Breed / Score 83 C
Innova Dog / Score 114 A+
Innova Evo / Score 114 A+
Kirkland Signature Chicken, Rice, and Vegetables / Score 110 A+
Kirkland Signature Puppy Chicken, Rice and Vegetable / Score 108 A+
Natural Balance Duck and Potato / Score 114 A+
Nature's Select Chicken & Rice Puppy Growth Premium / Score 96 A
Nutrisource Lamb and Rice / Score 87 B
Nutro Chicken, Rice, & Oatmeal / Score 85 C (non-specific fat source)
Nutro Natural Choice Large Breed Puppy / Score 87 B
Nutro Natural choice Lamb and Rice / Score 85 C
Ol Roy / Score 9 F
Pedigree Complete Nutrition / Score 42 F
Pedigree Adult Complete / Score 14 F
Pet Gold Adult with Lamb & Rice / Score 23 F
Pro Plan All Breed / Score 68 F
Pro Plan Natural Turkey & Barley / Score 103 A+
Purina Beneful / Score 17 F
Purina Dog / Score 62 F
Purina Come-n-Get It / Score 16 F
Royal Canine Bulldog / Score 100 A+
Royal Canine Dachshund 28 Formula / Score 97 A
Royal Canine Natural Blend Adult / Score 106 A+
Sensible Choice Chicken and Rice / Score 97 A
Science Diet Advanced Protein Senior 7+ / Score 63 F
Science Diet chicken adult maintenance / Score 45 F
Science Diet for Large Breed Puppies / Score 69 F
Solid Gold Bison / Score 123 A+
Timberwolf Organics Lamb and Venison / Score 136 A+
Wellness Just for Puppy / Score 117 A+
Wellness Super5 Mix Chicken / Score 110 A+
Wolfking Adult Dog (bison) by Solid Gold / Score 97 A


 

 



DOG FOOD INGREDIENTS

Meat Products

The protein in dog food comes from poultry, cattle, fish, lambs, swine, and other animals. Choice cuts are stripped away for human consumption. This leaves approximately 50% of the carcass including bones, blood, intestines, lungs, ligaments and any other portion not usually eaten by humans, according to the Animal Protection Institute.

Material received from the slaughterhouse is "denatured" to prevent it from being manufactured for human consumption. Denaturing involves covering the raw meat with any number of substances including the federally approved substances of carbolic acid (phenol, a potentially corrosive disinfectant), fuel oil, kerosene, crude carbolic acid, citronella, or creosote (used to preserve wood or as a disinfectant). Dr. Wendell Belfield, DVM, former USDA Vet, stated that as a veterinary meat inspector, he used carbolic acid and creosote, both of which are extremely toxic. Creosote, with its distinct odor, "was used for many years as a preservative for wood power poles. Its effect on the environment proved to be so negative that it is no longer used for that purpose."

At the rendering plant, the meat is shredded and cooked at high temperatures until the fat separates from the meat. This process is seen on a small scale when you boil chicken on your stove. The fat floats to the top; and if allowed to cool, it will harden in a thick layer. The fat is removed to be used later. The water is squeezed from the remaining material to create meat and bone meal. Although rendering kills bacteria, it also removes nutrients and proteins needed for energy.

Meat and bone meal is made of more than just meat and bone. All kinds of things find their way into the rendering pot. In addition to slaughterhouse waste, animals that fit within the 4D Rule are also rendered - that includes animals that are disabled, diseased, dead or dying. Other rendered items include restaurant grease and leftovers, road kill, euthanized companion pets complete with flea collars and the green bags in which they are transported, grocery store items such as meat and baked goods that are past their expiration date (Styrofoam tray and plastic wrap included) and much more.

AAFCO defines meat and bone meal as: "the rendered product from mammal tissues, including bone, exclusive of blood, hair, hoof, horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents, except in such amounts as may occur unavoidably in good processing practices." David C. Cooke writes in his article "Animal Disposal: Fact and Fiction" that it seems hardly feasible that rendering plants would be able "to remove the hair and stomach contents from 600,000 tons of dogs and cats prior to cooking them."
Meat by-products are defined by AAFCO as: "the non-rendered, clean parts, other than meat, derived from slaughtered mammals. It includes, but is not limited to, lungs, spleen, kidneys, brain, liver, blood, bone, partially defatted low-temperature fatty tissue and stomachs and intestines freed of their contents. It does not include hair, horns, teeth and hooves."

No recipe exists for the meat material produced by the slaughterhouses and rendering plants. Meat by-products and meat and bone meals vary from batch to batch creating an unstable source of nutrition for pets.

Although many sources are opposed to the use of by-products in dog foods, Laura Michaels, the owner of Woodhaven Labradors feels differently. She states that just because humans do not consume a particular part of an animal does not mean that part lacks nutrients. People do eat intestines; they're known as chitlins. Grocery stores sell the cow's stomach; it's called tripe. Some people even eat pork brains in milk gravy in their scrambled eggs. These parts are all by-products used in pet food. The owner of Woodhaven Labradors pointed out that in the wild, animals "don't go for the 'meaty haunch', they go for the gut and pull out all that gooey stuff and eat it."

Fats

The food that comes from the manufacturing plant is so rancid that no dog would touch it. So why does your dog come running when you open a new bag of commercial pet food? Because that overpowering odor wafting from the bag smells like dinner to him. Fat is sprayed directly on the morsels of food, and that is what you and your dog smell. The fat that entices him to eat is gathered from the rendering plant, restaurant grease, and other sources of fats and oils that are too rancid for human consumption. The restaurant grease is gathered from various establishments and stored in huge drums, sometimes outside for weeks at a time in extreme temperatures. Fat is also used as a sort of glue to stick other flavors to pet food morsels. These flavors and the sprayed fat trick pets into eating the food.

Grain Products

Many dog foods list corn, corn products, or other grains on the ingredient list - usually two of the top three ingredients. The amount of grain products has steadily increased since the first commercial pet foods. The biggest problem posed by the nutrients in grains is digestibility. As much as 20% of the nutritional value of grains can pass through the body unused, however pet food companies still list this as viable nutrition on the label. Some grains are used as fiber and others to make dogs feel full. Peanut hulls, for instance, have no nutritional value but are a cheap form of fiber.

We all know that our pets enjoy meats - especially cats, who are true carnivores - so why are we feeding them corn? It all goes back to the pet food industry focusing on business first. Grains are a cheaper energy source, so grains are better for their bottom line.

Types of grains used in pet foods include wheat, soy, corn, white rice, potatoes, beans, oats, and peanut shells.

Additives & Preservatives

Additives are used in pet food for any number of reasons, but they have no nutritional value. Artificial colors and flavors are added to improve appearance and taste. Emulsifiers prevent the separation of water and fat. Antioxidants prevent the fat from turning rancid. T.J. Dunn, DVM of ThePetCenter.com notes that the exceptional amount of additives in commercial dog foods "simply reveals the trickery needed to coax dogs and cats into consuming such material."

Semi-moist treats are especially full of additives, preservatives, and dyes. Ann Martin writes of a woman who "fed her cat some of these semi-moist tidbits. The cat became ill shortly after eating them, and even professional carpet cleaners could not remove the red dye from the carpet where her cat had been ill."
Pet foods are able to be stored for long periods of time - from manufacturing through shipping to the grocery store shelves and your home. More preservatives are used in dry foods than moist, since canning is a method of preservation in and of itself.

The fats used in pet foods are preserved with either synthetic or "natural" preservatives. Common synthetic preservatives include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ethoxyquin. Little research has been done on these potentially dangerous chemicals. They are used at low levels; however, our pets consume them every day of their lives. According to the Animal Protection Institute of America newsletter, "Investigative Report on Pet Food," ethoxyquin remains in dogs' bodies for months after it is removed from their diets. After the FDA received many complaints regarding pets that ate foods containing ethoxyquin, it required Monsanto, ethoyquin's manufacturer, to perform a detailed study. Monsanto found no major safety issues with its own product, but the FDA requested that manufacturers lower the amount of the antioxidant from 150 ppm to 75 ppm. This was not required of manufacturers, only requested until further studies can be made. API points out that even though ethoxyquin is approved for human use at 100 ppm in spices such as chili powder, it would be quite difficult for one to consume as much chili powder in a lifetime as a dog does dry dog food.

Some manufacturers are switching to natural preservatives, such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E, because of the publicity concerning ethoxyquin's safety. Natural preservatives are not as effective as synthetic ones, however they are safe. Consumers should be wary of dog foods that are labeled as "all natural," "preservative free" and other such labeled products. Dr. Lisa Freeman, DVM, writes in her article, Nutrition, that there is no legal definition of "all natural," and that "manufacturers define products by what they believe these terms mean." Sometimes a manufacturer may not have added any preservatives, but the meat or other ingredients may have had preservatives added to them by suppliers.


 

Ingredient Definitions A to Z

Find out what a particular ingredient does for your pet?
Read the ingredient definitions below for more information.


 

A


 

Apples

A natural source of dietary fiber, vitamin C and B vitamins.

Ascorbic Acid

Vitamin C. Acts as an antioxidant in the feed (preserves shelf life, prevents rancidity). Non-essential vitamin for dogs and cats (they can produce adequate amounts on their own).


 

B


 

Barley (Cracked Pearl)

Whole grain. Has 50% more protein than rice. Slow burning carbohydrate source, helps control blood sugar levels and helps keep the pet feeling satisfied for a longer period of time.

Beet Pulp

Dried remains of sugar beets after sugar is removed. Gray in color. Moderately fermentable fiber source to provide cells in colon with energy and to promote the "good" bacteria in the intestines. Considered to be one of the best fiber sources for optimal stool quality.

Biotin

B vitamin required for metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids, and non-essential amino acids. Water soluble vitamin. Required for normal skin and hair coat.

Blueberries

Rich in fiber and antioxidants, blueberries are a natural boost to the immune system.

Brewers Dried Yeast

Non-fermentable yeast that provides B-complex vitamins and proteins. Flavor enhancer.

Brewers Rice

Highly digestible carbohydrate made up from broken fragments of rice.

Brown Rice

Whole grain brown rice ground to a powder. Whole grains are metabolized more slowly, providing a steady supply of energy throughout the day. Source of fiber, carbohydrates, and vitamin B.


 

C


 

Calcium Pantothenate

Source of pantothenic acid, a B vitamin. This vitamin is necessary for normal intestinal function, growth, and hair coat color.

Carrots

A natural source of B vitamins and beta carotene, an antioxidant.

Chicken (fresh)

Food grade chicken that has been mechanically separated from the bone. Never frozen, arrives less than 24 hours after it is processed. Enhances palatability, low ash.

Chicken By-Product Meal

Animal source protein, made up mostly of internal organs such as liver, digestive tract, and kidneys. The intestines are a good source of smooth muscle protein. Fifteen percent of the meal includes meat and bone. No feathers. This ingredient is very digestible and very low in ash.

Chicken Fat

The most digestible animal fat source available. This is a liquid at room temperature which indicates a higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to fats which are solid at room temperature and are higher in saturated fatty acids. A source of Arachidonic acid (elongated form of Omega 6) and Linoleic (Omega-6) Acid.

Chicken Meal

Lean carcass (muscle and bone). No feathers or internal organs. We use a specially processed, low ash meal. Protein, phosphorus, and calcium come from the meal.

Chicory Root (dried)

A moderately fermentable carbohydrate source. Fermentation of chicory root (FOS-fructooligosaccharide) in the colon produces short chain fatty acids that are an energy source for colonocytes (cells lining the colon) as well as for the good bacteria in the colon.

Choline Chloride

A B-complex vitamin. Choline is required for normal nervous system function, normal growth in young animals, and protection of the kidneys. It can be synthesized in the liver, but is a dietary requirement.

Chondroitin Sulfate

A naturally occurring substance in the body, this is a building block for normal healthy cartilage. It also helps block harmful enzymes from damaging the cartilage. This supplement is derived from poultry cartilage.

Copper Proteinate

Chelated form of copper. Copper is an important mineral for maintaining coat color and also regulates reproduction in cats. Chelated minerals are attached to amino acids for better absorption from the digestive tract.

Copper Sulfate

An inorganic form of copper, a required mineral element. Copper is involved in normal reproduction as well as responsible for maintaining normal coat pigmentation.

Corn Gluten Meal

The dried residue from corn after the removal of the large part of the starch, gluten, and germ from the processes employed in the manufacture of corn syrup. It is an excellent low ash protein source which is highly digestible.

Cranberry Powder

All natural source of vitamin C and potassium. May have some ability to acidify the urine, but not consistently. Some sources list it as having an ability to block bacteria from adhering to the bladder wall, thus preventing bladder infections.


 

D


 

Docosohexanoic Acid (DHA)

Our puppy and kitten formulas supply natural DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) through easy-to-digest salmon oil, optimizing your pet’s potential for a healthy mind and body. DHA is a natural Omega-3 fatty acid critical for brain and vision development. A growing puppy or kitten first receives DHA from its mother's milk. Studies show that puppies and kittens can greatly benefit from DHA long after weaning.

It’s just another way we are committed to the total health and happiness of your pet.

Dried Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract

A digestive enzyme derived from yeast extracts, this ingredient helps promote healthy digestion.


 

E


 

Egg Product

Cooked and dried whole eggs, free of shells and other non egg material. A high quality, highly digestible source of protein.

Enterococcus faecieum

A probiotic, or beneficial bacteria, that helps promote a healthy digestive system by suppressing populations of the "bad" bacteria within the GI tract. Also supports a healthy immune system.


 

F


 

Ferrous sulfate

Inorganic form of iron. Added to enhance the iron content of the food. Iron is responsible for the transport of oxygen throughout the body.

Fish Meal

Whole Menhaden fish, cooked and ground to a meal. Good source of protein, omega-3 (linolenic) fatty acids, and minerals.

Flavor (natural)

Made from dried liver. Sprayed on the outside of the kibble.

Flaxseed

An all-natural plant source of Omega-3 fatty acids. Grown in Canada. Very palatable and stable.

Folic Acid

A water soluble B vitamin necessary for formation of red blood cells and for normal function of the nervous system and reproduction (fetal development).


 

G


 

Glucosamine Hydrochloride

This is a naturally occurring substance that is a building block for normal healthy joints. It is obtained from the shells of shrimp, lobsters and crabs.

Ground Corn

The whole corn grain ground to a flour consistency. Highly digestible carbohydrate source as well as source of protein and vitamins. All incoming corn is tested for aflatoxin.


 

I


 

Iron Proteinate

Chelated form of iron. Necessary for the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Chelated minerals are attached to amino acids for better absorption from the digestive tract.


 

K


 

Kelp

Seaweed plant that is a fiber and iodine source. Helps produce small firm stools. May reduce stool odor.


 

L


 

L-carnitine

A vitamin-like substance that helps maintain normal metabolism. This helps the body burn fat for energy and helps normalize blood sugar levels. Also helps large breed puppies maintain lean body condition and strong bones.

Lactobacillus acidophilus

A probiotic, or beneficial bacteria, that helps promote a healthy digestive system by suppressing populations of the "bad" bacteria within the GI tract. Also supports a healthy immune system.

Lactobacillus casei

A probiotic, or beneficial bacteria, that helps promote a healthy digestive system by suppressing populations of the "bad" bacteria within the GI tract. Also supports a healthy immune system.

Lamb (fresh)

Food grade lamb, mechanically removed from the bone. Never frozen, arrives in less than 24 hours. Enhances palatability, low ash.

Lamb Meal

Lean carcass of lambs (muscle and bone), cooked and ground to a fine consistency. Purchased from New Zealand, a certified Scrapie free country. Scrapie is the sheep version of mad cow disease.


 

M


 

Manganese proteinate

Chelated form of manganese. Manganese is important for proper bone formation, growth and reproduction. Chelated minerals are attached to amino acids for better absorption from the digestive tract.

Manganese Sulfate

The manganese salt of sulfuric acid and is needed for proper bone formation, growth and reproduction. Manganese is a micro mineral which functions as a component of several cell

enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions. Naturally occurring Manganese deficiency has not been reported in dogs or cats.

Manganous oxide

The oxide form of manganese that is needed for proper bone formation, growth and reproduction. Manganese is a micro mineral which functions as a component of several cell enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions. Naturally occurring Manganese deficiency has not been reported in dogs or cats.

Methionine

An essential amino acid which contains sulfur. Important for both dogs and cats, but more critical in cats since they have an increased demand for this amino acid. This is also a urine acidifier.

Milk (skim)

Dairy source of protein and calcium.


 

N


 

Natural chicken flavor

A natural product made mostly from chicken livers. This ingredient is used on the outside of the kibble to enhance flavor.

Niacin

Vitamin B3. Important for maintenance of hair, skin, nervous system, and energy metabolism. Dogs synthesize niacin from tryptophan (an amino acid) but cats must have it provided in their diet.


 

O


 

Oatmeal

Whole grain that is an excellent source of slow burning carbohydrates for all day energy and fiber for proper digestion.


 

P


 

Parsley

A natural herb. Flavor enhancer.

Peas

Natural source of dietary fiber and B vitamins.

Potassium Chloride

Potassium salt of hydrochloric acid and is required for body fluid maintenance, nerve conduction (including normal heart rhythm), and certain metabollic processes. Potassium is the main electrolyte in intracellular fluid.

Potassium Iodide

Potassium salt that is required for body fluid maintenance, nerve conduction (including normal heart rhythm), and certain metabollic processes. Potassium is the main electrolyte in intracellular fluid.

Powdered cellulose

A natural plant fiber source. This ingredient is highly refined, a white powder that provides insoluble fiber to the diet. The purpose of insoluble fiber is to lower calories or help control hairballs in cats.

Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Vitamin B6. Water soluble. Necessary for blood cell formation and nervous system function.


 

R


 

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2. Water soluble. Antioxidant necessary for nervous system function, utilization of energy, healthy skin and coat, and tissue repair.

Rice (Brewers)

Highly digestible carbohydrate made up from broken fragments of rice.

Rice bran

The inner (bran) portion of rice. Source of fat and fiber.

Rice Flour

The inner grain, free from the outer hull, ground to a flour consistency. It is a very highly digestible source of carbohydrates.

Rosemary Extract

Natural antioxidant added to help preserve the shelf life of the food.


 

S


 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation solubles

A digestive enzyme derived from yeast extracts, this ingredient helps promote healthy digestion.

Salt

Source of sodium and chloride. Used in formulas that are labeled for growing animals or reproducing animals. Sodium and chloride are required in higher levels by these life stages.

Sodium Bisulfate

An excellent urinary acidifier, this ingredient helps promote a urine pH of 6.1 - 6.4 in our adult cat formulas.

Sodium Selenite

Form of selenium, an essential trace mineral necessary for normal immune function and reproduction.


 

T


 

Taurine

Amino acid essential for cats that maintains healthy eyes and heart. Considered to be conditionally essential for dogs (meaning certain dogs require it in their diet under certain conditions - particularly true when the dog is eating a lamb formula that has low protein content).

Thiamine mononitrate

Vitamin B1. Required for protein and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as to maintain normal nervous system function.

Tocopherols

Natural preservative made of compounds of Vitamin E. Used to prevent rancidity in the chicken fat and the overall formula.

Tomatoes

A natural source of vitamin C and lycopene, important antioxidants.


 

V


 

Vitamin A Supplement

Active source of vitamin A, required by cats. Dogs can convert inactive vitamin A (beta-carotene) to active vitamin A. Necessary for reproduction, vision, normal skeletal and tooth development, immunity, and tissue integrity.

Vitamin B12 Supplement (Cobalamin)

The only B vitamin that can be stored by the body. Necessary for formation of red blood cells and normal nervous system function.

Vitamin D Supplement

Regulates calcium and phosphorus balance and bone calcification.

Vitamin E Supplement

Helps protect cell membranes, regulates intracellular respiration, and immune function.


 

W


 

White Rice

Inner grain of rice (outer bran is removed). Highly digestible carbohydrate ingredient.

Whole Grain Brown Rice

The whole grain of unprocessed rice ground to a fine flour consistency. Benefits include fiber, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamin B.


 

Y


 

Yucca Schidigera Extract

Natural plant extract that has been proven to reduce stool odor.


 

Z


 

Zinc Proteinate

Chelated form of zinc. Zinc is necessary for the formation of proteins in the body, normal immune system function, skin and wound healing, growth and reproduction. Chelated minerals are attached to amino acids for better absorption from the digestive tract.

Zinc Sulfate

Non-chelated form of zinc. Zinc is necessary for the formation of proteins in the body, normal immune system function, skin and wound healing, growth and reproduction. There is a genetically influenced abnormality in zinc absorption and metabolism in some breeds (Malamutes and Siberian Huskies) which may result in an increased dietary requirement for zinc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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